Lowering the Barriers to Programming – article


A survey of programming environments and languages for novice programmers by

Carnegie Mellon University
Carnegie Mellon University

It is 66 pages long and has some good charts and graphs that summarize many, many programming systems!

Since the early 1960’s, researchers have built a number of programming languages and
environments with the intention of making programming accessible to a larger number of
people. This paper presents a taxonomy of languages and environments designed to make
programming more accessible to novice programmers of all ages. The systems are
organized by their primary goal, either to teach programming or to use programming to
empower their users, and then by the authors’ approach to making learning to program
easier for novice programmers. The paper explains all categories in the taxonomy,
provides a brief description of the systems in each category, and suggests some avenues
for future work in novice programming environments and languages.


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